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There is no doubt that one of the main scientific reasons leading to the birth of the Park was the great richness and rareness of its flora.
Already in the 18th century, Vette di Feltre and Mt. Serva were famous and visited by some of the most famous botanists of that time.
The vascular flora (plants with flowers and others, such as ferns, having roots, stem, and leaves) consists of about 1,400 species (1/4 of the flora of the whole national territory), and among them there are many species deserving to be mentioned, since they are endemic species, rare species, or species with a great phytogeographical value.
The southernmost section of the Park is the richest one, since it has been less ruined by glaciations, and therefore ancient species could survive.
Localized rare species or species living at the edge of their range of distribution are abundant.
Besides the properly called Alpine (and in particular the eastern) species, and the boreal and temperate - Eurasian species, there are also many species gravitating around the eastern regions (Illyrian, Pontus, south-eastern European species), and the Circum-Mediterranean mountains (Mediterrranean-mountain species).